The SUREAL-23 Project Addresses the Following Objectives


The focus of SUREAL-23 is on the particulate emissions from contemporary light duty direct injection (DI) internal combustion (IC) engines (Diesel and gasoline) that will be addressed by homologation standards beyond Euro-6, especially for nanoparticles smaller than the current regulation cut-off limit of 23 nm with the threshold of at least 10 nm.


  • Complement and extend existing instrumentation by introducing size distribution and composition characterization of the exhaust aerosol, especially for particles below 23 nm
  • Characterize in detail the nature of the particulate emissions which potentially evade current emission control technology and regulations
  • Support future emissions compliance through technical developments in real driving emissions measurement
  • Contribute to future definitions of particulate emissions limits for “Super Low Emission Vehicles”


  • Size and composition analysis methods suitable for transient engine emissions
  • Novel instrumentation for measuring aerosol particles below 23 nm, providing backward compatibility with established PN measurement technology
  • Alleviation of problematic exhaust sampling requirements
  • Integration of the most suitable components of the extended sub-23 nm measurement toolset into PEMS and verification of their measurement capability in real driving conditions

Sub-23 nm Particle Emissions

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